There is a growing need to develop leaders, especially global leaders who can drive international initiatives. According the Mendenhall and colleagues (Mendenhall, Reiche, Osland, & Bird, 2012), the context of global leadership involves three main characteristics: (1) a workforce that spans geographic locations and time zones; (2) high levels of complexity that involve highly ambiguous situations resulting from the fluctuating interdependencies of a diverse sets of stakeholders; and (3) an overflow of information from which global leaders must identify relevant content and adjust their strategy accordingly. Unique sets of competencies are needed to succeed within this context, and as such, organizations are finding that global leaders are in very short supply (Caligiuri, & Tarique, 2006; Charan, Drotter, & Noel, 2001).
Cultural adaptation is not only for leaders. In the current global economy all members of an organization need to develop their Cross Cultural Competence (3C). It is now common for people to interact with multiple diverse populations both domestically and internationally as they go through their careers. Consequently, it has become more important to develop employees to interact and problem solve in multi-national business initiatives. Central to these goals is the development of 3C. 3C has been defined in many ways, but most definitions center on the ability to quickly understand and effectively act in a culture different from one’s own (Abbe, Gulick, & Herman, 2007; McDonald, McGuire, Johnston, Selmeski, & Abbe, 2008; Selmeski, 2009).